The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii exposure in dogs and cats from Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples from 318 dogs and 321 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by modified agglutination test (cut-off 1:25). Additionally, 18 dogs and 20 cats were longitudinally sampled for T. gondii antibodies during the same study period, between June and July 2019. The overall seroprevalence in dogs and cats was 7.9% (25/318; 95% CI 4.9–10.8%) and 18.7% (95% CI 14.4–23.0%), respectively. For dogs, risk factors identified were being a mixed-breed animal and living totally outdoors, while increasing age was shown to be a risk factor for cats. Seroconversion was not detected and titres from positive animals remained constant over longitudinal study. The present study indicates that there is a prominent presence of T. gondii in urban and peri-urban areas of Bangkok, suggesting that outdoor dogs and cats should be considered as a possible risk factor for humans.