Heat-inactivated mycobacteria activate the toll-like receptor 2 and 4 pathways in the zebrafish model of tuberculosis



Based on previous evidence demonstrating the efficacy of inactivated mycobacteria for the control of fish mycobacteriosis, we explored the protective efficacy of two inactivated Mycobacterium bovis administered via parenteral and mucosal routes against Mycobacterium marinum infection mimicking natural conditions in the zebrafish model of tuberculosis. Although we did not observe a clear effect of any of the immunostimulants on mycobacterial burden, the results showed a significant increase in TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression levels in fishes parenterally immunized with inactivated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Our findings demonstrated that the TLR2 and the TLR4 signaling pathways are involved in the immune response elicited by inactivated mycobacteria in the zebrafish model of tuberculosis and support the use of inactivated mycobacteria in vaccine formulations for the control of mycobacteriosis.

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